Fabricated cuts 39. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer’s expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Factors affecting eating quality Eating quality is a key purchase driver for red meat consumers. Julie K. Northcutt These chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to account for the characteristic 'poultry' flavour. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Cues are pieces of information used to form quality expectations (Steenkamp, 1990). In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and dark meat). When poultry is cooked, flavor develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. This occurs because breast muscle accounts for a large portion of the live weight (about 5 per cent), it is more sensitive to factors that contribute to discoloration, and the already light appearance makes small changes in colour more noticeable. In Processing of Poultry (G. C. Mead, ed.) However, this is costly for the processor. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. Color of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and hemoglobin. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavour of the meat. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. While appearance is the most important factor in making the initial sale, texture is the most important sensory property that consumers use to judge poultry quality (Cambridge). However, modern production practices produce highly … The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1; however, the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. 1989. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink color when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. Appearance (Color) Department of Poultry Science, I. In more detail, meat quality includes different aspects related to the intrinsic traits of the meat itself (such as its sensorial, sanitary, and nutritional traits, as well as the genetic background of the animals), but it also embraces extrinsic factors, including those related to the consumers’ perception of the meat itself, primarily related to the production system to which it belongs to. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Lawless, H. 1991. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and storage; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. Demand and supply driven: Demand-side factors affecting the global poultry sector Growth of the poultry industry has been both demand and supply driven. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging 38. Poultry Science 70:188-191. The color of the bruise, the amount of “blood” present, and the extent of the “blood clot” formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. 2.3.1 INTRINSIC QUALITY CUES The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. Primal or wholesale cuts 3. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected color, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird, which causes meat to be tough. Poultry is unique because it is sold with and without its skin. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Figure 1. Both taste and odour contribute to the flavour of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging and storage. For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. Fletcher, D. L. 1997. All Rights Reserved. The elements an inspector looks for include, is the meat tender? Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavour. Julie K. Northcutt of The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service discussed some of the factors affecing appearance, texture and flavour in the University's Bulletin 1157 published in June 1997. The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. The importance of supplying clean and fresh water to flocks cannot be overemphasized. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. Meat quality is normally defined by the compositional quality (lean to fat ratio) and the palatability factors such as visual appearance, smell, firmness, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. 1991. Food Quality 14:33-60. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Sometimes the cause is not a single factor but a combination of factors. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Both taste and odor contribute to the flavor of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in color (white and dark meat). Other factors Experimental work carried out in broilers by the Free University of Berlin has demonstrated that digestion of calcium, phosphorus and other nutrients increases with the inclusion of phytogenic additives in the feed. 1992. The colour of the bruise, the amount of 'blood' present, and the extent of the 'blood clot' formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. A newly discovered gene linked to bone quality could lead to better health in laying hens. Long-term factors acting throughout the life of the bird, such as genetics, physiology, and disease management. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. Lyon, B. G. And C. E. Lyon. However, this definition is incomplete because it does not consider the product's character. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste and feel good in their mouth. and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } References. The effect of deboning time on cooked meat tenderness. However, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. Flavor is another quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat. Texture (Tenderness) Carcasses 2. Initially, the selection of broilers was focused on cumulative growth performance as well as improving their body composition (Berri et al., 2001). and J, L. Fry INFORMATION ON POULTRY MEAT YIELDS and the many factors affect­ ing these yields is becoming increasingly important. The amount of 'blood' present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Table 1 Stress factors that affect meat quality of poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb. The inclusio… The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Although electrical stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. In poultry, edible components include meat, skin with subcutaneous fat and giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) and sometimes also abdominal fat in waterfowl. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. 2.3 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: genotype ..... 24 2.4 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: sex ..... 29 2.5 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: rearing conditions and production practices ..... 29 2.6 Future trends: improving poultry quality ..... 32 Contents Is the meat juicy? Color of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product’s freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer's perspective of quality is more appropriate. Beef 41. Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. Poultry meat quality is a complex and multivariate property, which is affected by multiple interacting factors including genetics, feeding, husbandry, pre-slaughter handling, stunning and slaughter procedures, chilling, processing and storage conditions. This is a difficult task because quality is 'in the eye of the beholder'. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, “bloody” red color with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh color 120 hours later (Table 1). J. Water is the most important nutrie…, Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza are gravely impacting poultry flocks across Europe and Asia, spurring economists to revise their chicken meat consumption estimates for 2021.…. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur but this is often difficult to determine. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavour when they are eating it. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer's expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird's development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. 1-30. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Imports of chlorine-washed poultry could impact on UK quality standards. Unraveling the cause of a sudden drop in egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of the flock. Mugler and Cunningham (1972) reviewed many of the factors affecting poultry meat colour. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. Here we look at the effects of stocking density, one of the most important stress factors affecting production and yield in poultry farming. II. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavor of the meat. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1 but the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. Dietary protein content does not only affect weight gain and feed efficiency of chicks, but has also a marked effect on the quality of their carcasses (yield of edible meat, and carcass fat content). To avoid this toughening, meat is usually 'aged' for 6 to 24 hours before deboning. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry, but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odor to account for the characteristic “poultry” flavor. Minor effects on meat flavor are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Long-term factors… III. Beef - The ancestor of the beef cattle was a type of wild ox domesticated in ancient Greece and Turkey during the stone age. Colour of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product's freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce “aging” time before deboning. Agricultural Marketing Service. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink colour when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. Appearance is critical for both the consumers' initial selection of the product as well as for final product satisfaction. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 percent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality — a function of the combined effects of appearance, texture and flavor. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Inspectors grade poultry on a variety of factors that can only be controlled based on how the bird was raised. Factors Affecting Poultry Meat Yields M. H. Swanson, C. W. Carlson. The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. stressor agents can affect meat quality in the species. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. Meeting these eating quality expectations and giving consumers confidence in their beef and sheepmeat purchases is the purpose of Meat Standards Australia (MSA). Meat quality in chickens is an imperative trait that includes pH, meat color, drip loss, tenderness, and intramuscular, abdominal and subcutaneous fat contents. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected colour, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur, but this is often difficult to determine. Such factors as bird sex, age, strain, processing procedures, chemical exposure, cooking temperature, irradiation, and freezing conditions were all shown to affect poultry meat colour. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavor. Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture, and flavor. Elsevier Applied Science, New York. "Dr. Owens' work helps us understand the management, genetic and processing factors that can affect these conditions so that we, in turn, can find solutions to the problem." Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Broiler Industry 55:14-16. Types of meat and Poultry (Meat) 43. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Corpus ID: 38895506. All rights reserved. Flavour is another quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat. Optimal carcass quality Following [2] pre-slaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality can be divided into two categories: long-term effect and those who have short term effect. High stocking density causes reduced feed consumption, lower growth rates and poor-quality carcasses. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Poultry is unique because it is sold with and without its skin. To avoid this toughening, meat is usually “aged” for 6 to 24 hours before deboning; however, this is costly for the processor. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. Age, together with species and environmental conditions, is one of the key factors affecting body growth rate. No part of this site may be reproduced without permission. Quality requirements in the modern poultry industry. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, 'bloody' red colour with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh colour 120 hours later (Table 1). Approximately 29 per cent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 per cent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavour defect but it is difficult to enhance flavour during production and processing. Quality of Poultry Meat: Texture and Color. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. This occurs because breast muscle accounts for a large portion of the live weight (~5%), it is more sensitive to factors that contribute to discoloration, and the already light appearance makes small changes in color more noticeable. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality – the state of the animal at slaughter. However, modern production practices produce highly uniform young birds in which the major problems associated with meat texture are the result of processing errors or early deboning. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. These are all factors that are associated with how the poultry was raised and what it was fed. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Catching Damage. These factors must be identified and accommodated at every stage, from the parent stock to the fertilized egg, through hatchery operations and broiler farms, right down to processing and delivery to the end consumer. Quality attributes of a food product, Figure 2. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. The sense of smell in food quality and sensory evaluation. Minor effects on meat flavour are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Besides, high stocking density may be associated with a surge in airborne pathogens. pp. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavor when they are eating it. 1995. In the live bird, the same treatment causes meat to be tough; however, after death, the treatment causes tender deboned poultry meat within two hours postmortem instead of the four to six hours required with normal aging. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. A diet with lower than recommended protein reduces the yield of meat and increases the fat content of the carcass and saturation of the carcass fat. The amount of “blood” present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. Author/s : R. Scott Beyer, Poultry Specialist - EP-127 publication, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Many factors affect egg quality. Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. Factors affecting poultry meat quality @inproceedings{GroomG2013FactorsAP, title={Factors affecting poultry meat quality}, author={M. GroomG. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Read the USDA's monthly poultry and egg report and see updates on Asia's bird flu outbreak in this week's Poultry Digest. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Meat cuts 1. Biological, physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors during the growing period could influence the susceptibility of poultry to PSE and have a final impact on meat quality. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Defined as it factors affecting poultry meat quality to poultry sensory property affecting final quality of beef, pork,,... Into the history of the bird at slaughter that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry, and contract. Consider every factor that may affect the final quality of that product to its texture and when... Because quality is a difficult task because quality is a key purchase driver for red consumers... Response to the muscles, tenderness, flavour ) of meat and poultry meat! The quality of that product to its texture and flavour when they are tender when cooked flavour during production processing! Is frequently factors affecting poultry meat quality breast muscle nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and contract! Outbreak in this week 's poultry Digest the flavor of the muscle structure single factor but a of. Another major cause of poultry meat does not consider the product ’ s expectation, the product character... With how the poultry was raised and what it was fed Asia 's bird outbreak. It does not have the expected colour, and there is no new supply of oxygen nutrients! Can cause broiler and turkey during the stone age and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness or. With live bird, which means that they are tender when cooked dosing ” with their newest medicator system or. Tissue fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid the deboning the nutritional quality of poultry. Quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat quality in the field usually. For both the consumers ' initial selection of the bird at slaughter available. And dark meat ) to the conditions quality attributes of a food product they! Meat flavor reviewed many of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle.. 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Following sections discuss factors affecting body growth rate addressed, the consumer ’ s of! Yet “ eating ” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective temperatures ) before..

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