It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. In a plastics market virtually monopolized by celluloid, a highly flammable material that dissolved readily and softened with heat, Bakelite found ready acceptance because it could be made insoluble and infusible. α-synuclein accumulation into dopaminergic neurons is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. For general molded parts, wood flour was preferred, but, where heat resistance, impact strength, or electrical properties were involved, other fillers such as cotton flock, asbestos, and chopped fabric were used. Bakelite Structure. By 1910 Baekland had a semicommercial production operation established in his laboratory, and in 1911 General Bakelite began operations in Perth Amboy, N.J., U.S. It is known for its electrically non-conductive and heat-resistant properties in radio and telephone casings and electrical insulators, and was used in diverse products such as kitchenware, jewellery, pipe stems, and children's toys. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hence option (1) is the answer. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Novolac Formation: When phenol and formaldehyde are heated in the excess of phenol (P/F > 1) with an acid catalyst, such as HCl, H 2 SO 4 or oxalic acid, a linear polymer is formed which is thermoplastic in nature and is known as Novolac. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. 0000009136 00000 n When made with this procedure, it is often an amber clear solid. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. 0000011690 00000 n H�b```e``9 0000006047 00000 n The beginning of the modern plastics industry is often dated to Baekeland’s first patent application in 1907 and to the founding of his General Bakelite Company in 1910. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Bakelite is an item a jewelry collector should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over the last few decades. 0000001104 00000 n 0000009530 00000 n Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. Unlike linear and branched polymers (see demonstration 25.2), which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Phenol-formaldehyde resins are heat-resistant and waterproof, though somewhat brittle. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. The A resin (resol) could be made directly into a usable plastic, or it could be brought to a solid B stage (resitol) in which, though almost infusible and insoluble, it could still be ground into powder and then softened by heat to a final shape in a mold. 0000001426 00000 n Reactions: SbF3 800oC CHCl3 ———→ CHF2Cl ————→ CF2 = CF2 HF –HCl (b.pt. asked Jan 12, 2020 in Chemistry by MoniKumari ( 52.0k points) jee main 2020 0000001405 00000 n 8 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 10 /H [ 1221 205 ] /L 23489 /E 13641 /N 2 /T 23212 >> endobj xref 8 38 0000000016 00000 n Because of its excellent insulating properties, Bakelite was also the first commercially produced synthetic resin, replacing shellac and hard rubber in parts for the electric power industry as well as in home appliances. Difference between novolac and Bakelite [structure ] Dear student, Novolac :linear stucture formed as a product of condensation reaction between phenol and for Learn to Create the Famous Tic Tac Toe Game in Our Free Robotics Webinar. Formation of Bakelite follows electrophilic substitution reaction of phenol with formaldehyde followed by condensation. %PDF-1.2 %���� Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid- or base-catalysed.Since formaldehyde exists predominantly in solution as a dynamic equilibrium of methylene glycol oligomers, the concentration of the reactive form of formaldehyde depends on temperature and pH. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Bakelite, trademark of phenol-formaldehyde resin, trademarked synthetic resin invented in 1907 by Belgian-born American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland. 10 to 12ml of conc. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. ... Chemical bonding and molecular structure (338) Chemical thermodynamics (359) Solutions (192) Equilibrium (233) Redox reactions and electrochemistry (191) Chemical kinetics (226) )?�+nE��Cr$M����YI���~O�*���. Neoprene (CR), also called polychloroprene or chloroprene rubber, synthetic rubber produced by the polymerization (or linking together of single molecules into giant, multiple-unit molecules) of chloroprene. The injection pressure of bakelite is generally between 3-5 kb/cm2, and it can be produced according to different products and product structures by selecting appropriate pressure. PF resin is formed when molecules of phenol (C. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 0000001632 00000 n 0000011473 00000 n Omissions? Water molecule is removed in the process. 0000009246 00000 n Formation of Bakelite Jaime Leigh Plym Performed September 16, 2015 Organic Chemistry II - CHM2211 ABSTRACT Bakelite was formed by a INTRODUCTION Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin and is one of the earliest commercial plastics. In 1939 Baekeland sold the Bakelite trademark to the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (now Union Carbide Corporation). In the growing consumer market of the 1930s and after, Bakelite faced competition from other thermosetting resins such as urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde and from new thermoplastic resins such as cellulose acetate, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, and polystyrene. 0000002301 00000 n 0000006788 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Info 6 0 R /Root 9 0 R /Prev 23203 /ID[<07cfea1e1e4fd1e0ec068afdaef64e3c><07cfea1e1e4fd1e0ec068afdaef64e3c>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 9 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 7 0 R /OpenAction [ 10 0 R /XYZ null null null ] /PageMode /UseNone >> endobj 44 0 obj << /S 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 45 0 R >> stream Corrections? So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. 0000010588 00000 n 0000010609 00000 n 0000011551 00000 n Since the formation of bakelite is by Lederer Manassereaction which proceeds through electrophilic aromatic substitutionon phenol, its path is similar to that in C- acylation and not O-acylation.

Bakelite is the trade name for phenol formaldehyde resin. They are hard, rigid and brittle due to cross-linked structure, e.g., bakelite, melamine, etc. To make it stronger and to make more of it, filler such as sawdust is often added. (1) Nylon 6 (2) Bakelite (3) Nylon 6, 6 (4) Terylene. 11. 0000007663 00000 n A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. 0000003902 00000 n "U�x �fb��� �30�2p�+�����{b���� ��-2p�a0`X��t�[EF��=�A*’���6� �OZ endstream endobj 45 0 obj 100 endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 7 0 R /Resources 11 0 R /Contents [ 21 0 R 23 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 11 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageC /ImageI ] /Font << /F2 34 0 R /TT2 16 0 R /TT4 12 0 R /TT6 13 0 R /TT8 25 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 43 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 41 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs5 18 0 R /Cs9 19 0 R >> >> endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 611 778 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 0 556 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 0 722 0 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /FontDescriptor 14 0 R >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 111 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 584 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 0 0 556 0 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 778 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /Arial /FontDescriptor 17 0 R >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -184 -307 1089 1026 ] /FontName /TimesNewRoman,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -167 -307 1009 1007 ] /FontName /TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 122 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 0 0 278 0 0 0 0 444 0 722 667 667 722 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 889 0 0 556 0 0 0 611 0 0 944 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 0 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 15 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -222 -325 1072 1037 ] /FontName /Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 >> endobj 18 0 obj [ /CalRGB << /WhitePoint [ 0.9505 1 1.089 ] /Gamma [ 2.22221 2.22221 2.22221 ] /Matrix [ 0.4124 0.2126 0.0193 0.3576 0.71519 0.1192 0.1805 0.0722 0.9505 ] >> ] endobj 19 0 obj [ /Indexed 18 0 R 255 42 0 R ] endobj 20 0 obj 860 endobj 21 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 20 0 R >> stream Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Synthesis of Bekelite(Phenol Formaldehyde Resin) By Sukhdev Patsariya (HOD Chemistry) Patsariya Classes Gwalior (MP) Mob 9039499897 Thank you for watching. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. In the structure of Bakelite, the phenol and formaldehyde are cross-linked. Melting is a process whereby a collection of atoms/molecules that are held together by weak forces are provided sufficient energy so that the individual molecules can separate from each other. Union Carbide sold the trademark in 1992 to the Georgia-Pacific Corporation, which employed Bakelite as a bonding agent for plywood and particleboard. (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-OH bond-formation of anhydride, reactions with PCl5, PCl3, SOCl2, esterification and reaction with ammonia (iii) Reactions involving -COOH group-reduction, decarboxylation (iv) Substitution reactions in the hydrocarbon part - halogenation and ring substitution, Uses of carboxylic acids. In the 1930s cast Bakelite, along with many other competing phenolic resins, enjoyed a vogue in colourful costume jewelry and novelties. 0000003032 00000 n The term Bakelite is sometimes used in the resale market to indicate various types of early plastics, including Catalin and Faturan, which may be brightly colored, as well as items made of Bakelite material. 0000005669 00000 n 1 Experiment 15: Exploring the World of Polymers Objective: In this experiment, you will explore a class of chemical compounds known as polymers.You will synthesize and modify polymers, test their properties and use a fabrication technique to produce an object from a polymer.

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