Between 1884 and 1914, New Guinea was annexed and ruled by Germany or its colonial agencies (Firth, 1986). Chalmers, of the London Missionary Society, wrote in 1895, Retain native customs as much as possible--only those which are objectionable should be forbidden--leave it to the influence of education to raise (the people) to the purer and more civilised customs. used to achieve the colonial objectives. (Interview: January 1993). Both industry and agriculture are mechanized. 1 Religious education has a statutory position in Scottish education, relating to schools but not to pre-school centres. To understand the origins of colonialism in PNG, it is necessary to examine historically the rapid expansion of colonial activity in the late nineteenth century. While the Territory of Papua and New Guinea from the year 1884 passed through several forms of British and German, civil and military government, mission native education, first set up in the Territory in 1872, developed through four consecutive phases. The colonisers saw themselves as peacemakers, and often used diplomatic activity to secure consensus between tribes. On the one hand, much of the population has been exposed to a Western society which has many of the features of the Space Age. Is recruitment and appointment of officers based on tribal obligations a "PNG way"? Griffin (1978:xi) refers to these motives as: Concern, Careerism, Cupidity, or Didacticism, Dominion, Dividends ... Concern and Didactism allow that not all purveyors of Light were evangelists and that there were irreligious humanitarians who wanted to disperse darkness. As a result, the 1960s and 1970s witnessed a substantially increased enrolment of students in secondary schools. Balandier (1960:1) maintains that: Colonialism is the establishment and maintenance, for extended time, of rule over an alien people that is separate from and subordinate to the ruling power. For the notion of social development is much more complex and multifaceted than is implied by the talk of biological growth and maturation. The emphasis was on instituting a form of indirect rule, through the representatives of the colonial authority, the "kiaps", and their indigenous agents, "mausmen". Foreign debts to the international financial institutions continue to increase which makes the debted countries' economies even more dependent on them. This province has one of the biggest open-cut copper mines in the world (Filer, 1990). This fact serves to highlight the recency of the concept of the nation of PNG. New cultural forms are emerging throughout Papua New Guinea, partly as a consequence of the incursion of western values and institutions (Reed, 1983; Wolfers, 1992:248), and partly in response to greater communication among different tribal groups. Colonialism is a highly contested concept for which there is no universal meaning. This Agreement had stipulated that Australia was to ensure that the indigenous customs were protected; that their rights and possessions were not taken away from them; that Australia was to educate the indigenous people; and that it was to ensure that the locals participated in running the affairs of the Territory. Their financial needs encourage the Third World countries to seek foreign investment in terms of capital, manpower and technology from international financial institutions such as the World Bank, International Monetary Funds, Asian Development Bank, European Economic Commission and so on. Using modernisation theory, Alavi and Shanin (1982) suggest that Third World countries are thus referred to as "backward nations", while colonies remaining under Europeans are "emergent nations" upon independence and "developing countries" thereafter (cited in Spybey, 1992:21). The names, Papua and New Guinea, are thus not local in origin but have nevertheless come to be accepted as part of the nation's colonial legacy (Nelson, 1974 :163). Most members of the United Nations were sympathetic towards this cause of independence and it was in this context that there were mounting pressures on Australia to fulfil its obligation to Papua and New Guinea. The administrative system that the Papuan colonial authorities set up was concerned solely with the issues of law and order, and owed much to the British colonial experience in the Western Pacific, especially Fiji. Walt Rostow (1960), an economic historian and adviser to the American government, assumes that in order for the "backward nations" to be modernised they have to go through these "stages of development". Firstly, it is argued that Papua and New Guinea is an historical artefact constructed through the processes of colonialism. Capitalism involves control over the mode of production through the manipulation of labour in the production of commodities. Waiko (1993:254-255) maintains: Most Papua New Guineans still live in societies which have many of the characteristics of the Stone Age. For most Papuans and New Guineans, the concept of citizenship is a foreign one. As an academic at the University of Papua New Guinea suggests: ... the Papua New Guineans do not have this spirit of Nationalism. The boundaries of these Districts have been maintained in post-independence Papua New Guinea and are now known as the Provinces. It is important to recognise that, whatever their wider interests, many European colonisers saw colonialism in benevolent terms. This, Nandy regards, as the most destructive form of colonisation. He did not appreciate the cruelties inflicted by the colonisers on the colonised. Ward's thinking should not, however, be attributed solely to his altruism. civilization, including education (Whitehead, 2005). The knowledge, skills and values they received in western-style schools helped to turn them into members of "new elites"; and it is they who inherited the power that had once been held by the colonisers. When Nandy speaks of the colonisation of the mind, he suggests an ideological framework in which the colonised accepts and assumes as natural the values of the coloniser. Dependency theory seeks to address this contradiction, but is not without its own problems. As O'Faircheallaigh (1992:272) suggests: Damage to land, often associated with resource exploitation, has profound social cultural and spiritual ramifications. And finally, while independence movements in Papua and New Guinea were not as extensive, nor as passionate, as in a number of other countries such as India and Malaya, there were beginning to surface isolated cases of indigenous demands for self-government. Instead, we think it is more appropriate to see the consequences of colonization of village life as generative. As such, it has been represented in different forms at different times in history, and it continues to be a contested construct. For us to be completely landless is a nightmare with no dollar in the pocket, dollar in the bank with allay; we are threatened people". The luluais and tultuls received their orders from the Kiaps (Rowley, 1986). In many Third World countries, there is an emerging view that it is the Western financial institutions and their agencies which now dictate the terms in which the notion of development should be understood (Hettne, 1990). Consequently, a pattern of dependency persists; as does the perception that there are two classes of public servants, not least because the conditions of employment for expatriates are much more attractive. Papua had a system of multiple chiefs in the same tribe, who governed in a collaborative fashion. According to recorded history, the education system in PNG went through several successive stages of change (Watson, 1982; Weeks & Guthrie, 1984). What this implies is that colonialism is often a much more persistent phenomenon, since, in addition to its political form, it is also characterised by its economic and ideological dimensions. After the War, the colony had been transferred to the League of Nations under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, Paris, and Australia was given the mandate to administer New Guinea. Its defeat simply hastened the process, leading in 1919 to a proclamation and imposition of Australian military rule in New Guinea (Reed, 1983). Devolution has been viewed as an important strategy to ensure the development of an educational system that reconciles the competing demands of the traditional ways of life and life in a society that is increasingly determined by the cultural imperatives of a cash economy. The administrators became permanent residents in convenient locations which later became known as "Patrol Posts". It also suggests that it is a mistake to assume that everyone is affected by colonialism in the same way. Colonialist ideologies had basically denied the existence of a traditional education system, and certainly had not legitimised it. This web site has some of the most comprehensive information on the non-governmental-organisations (NGOs) working in Papua New Guineaa (PNG) and also provides a hosting service for NGOs presently unable to design and host their own sites. The missionaries also saw themselves as having a major responsibility to develop among indigenous people, those values that contributed to the development of Papua New Guinea as a "civilised" nation. From inside the book . The luluais were supposed to act as the "mausman" or spokesmen of the Government, and were responsible for collecting taxes, settling minor disputes and reporting major disputes to the Government. These people live in scattered villages and hamlets, often in inaccessible terrain. Recent post-Marxist analyses of colonialism, for example, the work of Hommi Bhabba (1994), are instructive. Papua New Guinea is a nation of many tribes. The Augustine Christian model of development assumes that the world is heading towards a major catastrophe that would mark the end of all human evil: the "second-coming" of Christ (Fagerlind and Saha, 1989:28). To them, it is strange that Europeans, Asians or Pacific Islanders can also become citizens of PNG through immigration. Europe, Blaut maintains, should not be the centre of explanation; what was going on in the colonies was as much responsible for the expansion of colonialism as the actions of the colonisers. Papua New Guineans now identify themselves with this new name. The Foot Report suggested that a House of Assembly be established with fewer representatives of the Administration and more elected indigenous members. In the Sepik, Western, and Gulf Provinces, human habitation is widely regarded as very unattractive. As Spybey (1992:23-24) argues: The fundamental principle of dependency theory is that the Third World is not, as modernization theory suggests, an area ripe for development along a pathway taken previously by European countries, but instead is a subsidiary part of the Western capitalist system and has been so since the spread of colonialism. The other 15 percent of Papua and New Guineans are urban dwellers who work and/or live in towns and cities like Port Moresby, Alotau, Kerema, Daru, Poponetta, Lae, Madang, Wewak, Vainimo, Hagen, Wabag, Goroka, Rabaul, Kimbe, Kavieng and Lorengau. Spybey (1992:113) suggests that: The success of the European states in setting up their colonial empires gave Europeans a tremendous sense of their own superiority. 145 0 obj <> endobj 158 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4D360E4B78D74E45AC12F454EDB78211><3FE61C4280D14C38A00B912D0EE851E6>]/Index[145 17]/Info 144 0 R/Length 70/Prev 1601979/Root 146 0 R/Size 162/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream The idea of colonialism is a complex one and does not permit a simple definition. In terms of this definition of education, there was now a scarcity of educational resources where no scarcity had existed before. Close to 85% of the population is still mainly engaged in traditional agriculture. Yet, while they recognised the inevitability and desirability of independence, the reports were nevertheless framed within a colonial mode of thinking. He argues that each society is composed of a grand System and other sub-systems. Those societies that do not possess material wealth are considered under-developed or developing, in need of greater enterprise and resourcefulness to progress along the linear stages. In 1973, Papua and New Guinea was granted self-government. In the ninetieth century, there were a wide variety of reasons given for colonial activity. Apart from the purpose of traditional education, PNG's colonial rulers also rejected the manner in which it was traditionally organised and delivered. They share closer cultural and family ties with the tribes in PNG than with the people of Indonesia (Dorney, 1990: 247-285). Such a background is necessary for a discussion of the issues concerning the policy of devolution in PNG educational administration. It was assumed that a western-style classroom was the only site where education could legitimately take place. This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. 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